Retina and Uveitis Services
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Common Retinal Diseases
It is caused by complications of diabetes, which can eventually lead to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of diabetes, a systemic diseases, which affects up to 80 percent of all patients who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. Despite these intimidating statistics, research indicates that at least 90% of these new cases could be reduced if there was proper and vigilant treatment and monitoring of the eyes.The longer a person has diabetes, the higher his or her chances of developing diabetic retinopathy.
Diabetic retinopathy often has no early warning signs. Even macular edema, which may cause vision loss more rapidly, may not have any warning signs for some time. In general, however, a person with macular edema is likely to have blurred vision, making it hard to do things like read or drive. In some cases, the vision will get better or worse during the day.
Age Related Mascular Degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration begins with characteristic yellow deposits (drusen) in the macula, between the retinal pigment epithelium and the underlying choroid. Most people with these early changes (referred to as age-related maculopathy) have good vision. People with drusen can go on to develop advanced AMD. The risk is higher when the drusen are large and numerous and associated with disturbance in the pigmented cell layer under the macula. Large and soft drusen are related to elevated cholesterol deposits and may respond to cholesterol-lowering agents.
Age-related macular degeneration is a medical condition which usually affects older adults and results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in "dry" and "wet" forms. It is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults . Macular degeneration can make it difficult or impossible to read or recognize faces, although enough peripheral vision remains to allow other activities of daily life.
Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. Initial detachment may be localized, but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach, leading to vision loss and blindness. It is amedical emergency.
A retinal detachment is commonly preceded by a posterior vitreous detachment which gives rise to these symptoms:
- Flashes of light (photopsia) – very brief in the extreme peripheral (outside of center) part of vision
- A sudden dramatic increase in the number of floaters
- A ring of floaters or hairs just to the temporal side of the central vision
- A slight feeling of heaviness in the eye
- Patient Gratification
Although most posterior vitreous detachments do not progress to retinal detachments, those that do produce the following symptoms:
- A dense shadow that starts in the peripheral vision and slowly progresses towards the central vision
- The impression that a veil or curtain was drawn over the field of vision
- Straight lines (scale, edge of the wall, road, etc.) that suddenly appear curved (positive Amsler grid test)
- Central visual loss
Although uveitis is usually an isolated illness myriad conditions can be associated with it, including diseases with major involvement of other body parts, as well as syndromes confined to the eye.
In anterior uveitis, no associated condition or syndrome is found in approximately one-half of cases. However, anterior uveitis is often one of the syndromes associated with HLA-B27. Presence this type of HLA allele has a relative risk of evolving this disease by approximately 15%.
The most common form of uveitis is acute anterior uveitis (AAU). It is most commonly associated with HLA-B27 which has important features: HLA-B27 AAU can be associated with ocular inflammation alone or in association with systemic disease. HLA-B27 AAU has characteristic clinical features including male preponderance, unilateral alternating acute onset, a non-granulomatous appearance, and frequent recurrences whereas HLA-B27 negative AAU has an equivalent male to female onset, bilateral chronic course, and more frequent granulomatous appearance.